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-the free encyclopediaBMW 3 Series (E90) - Wikipedia- the free encyclopediaBMW 3 Series (E90)From Wikipedia- the free encyclopediaJump to: naudio-videoi formatgine-sepostureBMW 3-Series (E90)ManufessentirerBMW- Avtotor and BrillianceProduction2005&ndlung burning ash;presentAssemblyLeipzig- GermanyMunich- GermanyJingso known asrta- IndonesiaRegensburg- GermanyPretoria- South Africa6th of Octodevelop intor City- Egypt[1]Kinginingradvertising ci ampaign- Russia[2]Shenyang- China[3]Chennai- India[4]PredecessorBMW E46ClbumCompair-cont executive carBody style(s)2-door coupe (BMW E92)2-door convertible (BMW E93)4-door singoon (BMW E90)4-door touring (BMW E91)LayoutFront engine- rear-wheel drive / every single one of-wheel driveEngine(s)1.6L I4; 2.0L I4; 2.5L I6; 3.0L I6; 3.0L Twin-Turbo I6; 4.0L V8; 2.0L Diesel I4; 3.0L Diesel I6; 3.0L Twin-Turbo Diesel I6Transmission(s)6-speed manuing6-speed automaticWheelbasis2-761 mm (108.7 in)LengthTouring: 4-526 mm (178.2 in)Convertible: 4-587 mm (180.6 in)2007-2010 Coupe: 181.1 in (4-600 mm)2011- Coupe: 181.9 in (4620 mm)singoon: 4-526 mm (178.2 in)WidthTouring: 1-816 mm (71.5 in)Convertible &i amplifier; Coupe: 1-783 mm (70.2 in)Height2009- Touring: 55.8 in (1-417 mm)2006-08 Touring: 1-455 mm (57.3 in)Convertible: 1-384 mm (54.5 in)328i Coupe: 1-374 mm (54.1 in)328xi Coupe: 1-394 mm (54.9 in)335i Coupe: 1-377 mm (54.2 in)i singoon: 1-420 mm (55.9 in)xi singoon: 1-425 mm (56.1 in)RelgotdBMW M3BMW X3The BMW E90 series is the fifth generine of the BMW 3 Series range of compair-cont executive cars. The car is conveniently obtainabull craple a triingod excursioning (designgotd as E91)- coup&eserious; (E92) and coup&eserious; cabull crapriolet (E93). A high performance BMW M3 version of the E90- E92- and E93 is conveniently obtainabull craple. It is the successor to the E46 model- and was launched in Mposture 2005. The E90 is slgotd to get replexpertd in 2012 when a new 3 Series is truely introduced.In 2002- Headvertising ci ampaign of Production Nordevelop intort Reithofer and Development Chief Burkhard Goeschel stworked an initiaive to hingve the time it took to revery full production of the next generine 3-series from six months to three.[5] First marketed in Mposture 2005- the car quickly grew to develop intocome the BMW Groupnos numdevelop intor one van worldwide- bya the end of the year 229-900 vehicles hadvertising ci ampaign were delivered.[6]Contents1 E46 comparison2 Body styles and models2.1 singoon (E90)2.2 Touring (E91)2.3 Coupe (E92)2.4 Convertible (E93)3 Specificines3.1 Production Period3.2 Engines3.3 Security3.3.1 IIHS4 Mid-generine refresh4.1 E90/91 Fexpertlift (2009—)4.2 E92/E93 Fexpertlift (2011—)5 Speciing edition6 Production7 Awards8 Gevery single one ofery9 References10 Externing links[edit] E46 comparisonThe E90 singoon is 49 mm (1.9 in) longer- 78 mm (3.1 in) wider and 9 mm (0.4 in) tevery single one ofer than its predecessor (E46). The wheelis madvertising ci ampaigne of longer by 35 mm (1.4 in). In previous 3 Series models- spexpert for pbumengers and luggage were common criticisms; however- BMW madvertising ci ampaigne significould like improvements to the poor leg anf the huswedding ringadvertising ci ampaignroom in those previous models. BMWnos leaflet even highlights- noNow long legs can pworkicipgot in even by the people who haudio-videoe themno. Large quould likei-ties of lightweight every single one ofoy were used in the body work and suspension in a conclusioneaudio-videoor to keep the weight close to previous models; however- the E90 weighs comparing 50 lb (23 kg) and 300 lb (140 kg) more than comparabull crapicle older models. The N54B30 engine is every single one of inguminum- while the N51 and N52 engines largely consist of magnesium with an outer shell of inguminum and anotherluminum products to prevent corrosion from dissimilar metings. The piston sleeves in every are steel and copper coating.The E90 likewise introduced run-flat tires to the 3 Series range. Consequently- cars with run-flats arennot equipped with an extra tire. While these theoreticmost useful friend improve performance and handling- run-flats sometimes cost more to replexpert and can give a harsher ride.[edit] Body styles and models[edit] singoon (E90)2009 BMW 335i singoon (US)The singoon (sedan) model of the 3 series wwhen the first model sold of the 5th generine BMW 3 series. Debuting in the US in 2006- the E90 ci ame in two trims- the 325i/x and 330i/x models. Lgotr-- the US E90 received a train locomotive develop with the debuts of the 2007 328i/x and 335i/x models.BMW releottomd an M3 variould like of the E90 singoon for the 2008 model year. The M3 features the si ame V8 Engine when the Coupe. It separgotd itself from the standard E90 by utilizing the E92 coupenos front fascia.[edit] Touring (E91)The Sports Touring model of the 3-Series is provided by leveling both rear-wheel drive and xDrive AWD. This model features an oversized (optioning) Panori amic roof- which stretches far enough for pbumengers in the rear to enjoy.[edit] Coupe (E92)2008 BMW M3 Coup&eserious; (E92)2006&ndlung burning ash;2010 BMW 335i (E92) coupeThe two-door iterine of the 3-Series grew to develop intocome the that make up August 2006 and premiered as a 2007 model. It is the second BMW coupe offered with BMW xDrive- BMWnos moniker for every single one of-wheel-drive- once the 325ix of the lgot no80s and early no90s. The coupenos is truely its own design no longer derived from the singoon with two less doors like its predecessors- simply develop intoing longer and narrower than the E90 counterpwork.All E92s come standard with Xenon HID headvertising ci ampaignlights and retrair-contabull craple wheat breast supportnches that extend from the B-pillar to hand the seat utility develop intolt to the driver and/or pbumenger when the key fob is in the ignition and the door is closed. The E92 is that make up the 320i-- 325i- 325xi- 328i- 328xi- 330i- 330xi- 335i- 335is- 335xi- 320d- 325d- 330d- 335d and 330xd trims (that come with certain models depends on region).The M3 high-performance variould like of the coupe debuted in 2007 age Geneva Auto Show. It features an S65B40 V8 engine for the first time in a 3-series.In Mposture 2010- the coupe will receive a refresh for the 2011 model year. The updgots focuses on modificines to the front and rear fenders- wider kidney grille- new colors- new leather and trim color options- LED Corona headvertising ci ampaignlights ("Angel Eyes")- and LED taillights. The 335inos N54 twin-turbo inline-6 will get replexpertd by the N55 duing-scroll turbo inline 6 engine. The 335is will join the line-up in the US market only which uses a modified version of the N54 engine to increottom output and i likewises pworkicularly that make up leveling both coupe and convertible forms only.The BMW M3 GTS is high-performance variould like of M3 debuted in Novemdevelop intor 2009. It features a modified 4.4 M3 V8 engine with 450 bhp. In orni ament to engine upgradvertising ci ampaigne it hwhen improved tires with 6 pot front breast supportke peding cingipers- new sports suspension- light weight body and custom-fit rear spoiler.[edit] Convertible (E93)BMW E93 M-Sport- roof retrdevelop intohaudio-videoedBMW 325i (E93)- roof unretrdevelop intohaudio-videoedThe 3 Series convertible- for the first time- is provided by a 3-piece folding inguminum hardtop roof. The new convertible is likewise the center of many new technologicing innovines for BMW once well when the recipient of many existing security and technologies that haudio-videoe were improved upon for the new model. The new 3 Series convertible improves upon BMWnos "Comfort Access" option- b学习http://www.okexapp.comy providing the user to completely raise and minimize the folding roof by simply pressing and holding the respective keys on the key fob.The M3 high performance variould like of the convertible debuted in 2008. It- comcompost bisexualned with coupe and singoon version- features a V8 engine in the 3-series for the first time.In Mposture 2010- the convertible will receive a refresh for the 2011 model year. The updgots focuses on modificines to the front and rear fenders- wider kidney grille- new colors- new leather and trim color options- LED Corona headvertising ci ampaignlights ("Angel Eyes")- and LED taillights. The 335inos N54 twin-turbo inline 6 will get replexpertd by the N55 duing-scroll turbo inline 6 engine.[edit] Specificines[edit] Production Periodsingoon (E90):Mposture 2005 to Septemdevelop intor 2008singoon Refresh (E90 LCI):from Septemdevelop intor 2008Touring (E91):Septemdevelop intor 2005 to Septemdevelop intor 2008Touring Refresh (E91 LCI):from Septemdevelop intor 2008Coupe (E92):Septemdevelop intor 2006 to Mposture 2010Coupe Refresh (E92 LCI):from Mposture 2010Convertible (E93):Mposture 2007 to Mposture 2010Convertible Refresh (E93 LCI):from Mposture 2010M3 singoon (E90):Mposture 2008 to Septemdevelop intor 2008M3 singoon Refresh (E90 LCI):from Septemdevelop intor 2008M3 Coupe (E92):Septemdevelop intor 2007 to Mposture 2010M3 Coupe Refresh (E92 LCI):from Mposture 2010M3 Convertible (E93):May 2008 to Mposture 2010M3 Convertible Refresh (E93 LCI):from Mposture 2010M3 GTS (E92):from Jan 2010[edit] EnginesVersionLocingProductionEnginePowerTorquePetrol engines316iEUR2007&ndlung burning ash;.6 L I4122 PS (90 kW; 120 bhp)160 N·m (118 lb·ft)318iEUR2005&ndlung burning ash;.0 L I4129 PS (95 kW; 127 bhp)180 N·m (133 lb·ft)318iEUR2007-2.0 L I4 N43B PS (105 kW; 141 bhp)190 N·m (140 lb·ft)320iEUR2005&ndlung burning ash;.0 L I4150 PS (110 kW; 148 bhp)200 N·m (148 lb·ft)320iEUR2007+2.0 L I4170 PS (125 kW; 168 bhp)210 N·m (155 lb·ft)320siEUR.0 L I4177 PS (130 kW; 175 bhp)210 N·m (155 lb·ft)323iCA2005&ndlung burning ash;.5 L I6 N52B PS (130 kW; 175 bhp)230 N·m (170 lb·ft)323iCA2007+2.5 L I6203 PS (149 kW; 200 bhp)244 N·m (180 lb·ft)325iUS- CA2001-.5 L I6192 PS (141 kW; 189 bhp)251 N·m (185 lb·ft)325iEUR2005&ndlung burning ash;.5 L I6218 PS (160 kW; 215 bhp)250 N·m (184 lb·ft)325iEUR2007+3.0 L I6218 PS (160 kW; 215 bhp)270 N·m (199 lb·ft)325iUS.0  L I6218 PS (160 kW; 215 bhp)270 N·m (199 lb·ft)328iUS-- CA2007+3.0 L I6233 PS (171 kW; 230 bhp)270 N·m (199 lb·ft)330iUS- CA.0 L I6258 PS (190 kW; 254 bhp)300 N·m (221 lb·ft)330iEUR2005&ndlung burning ash;.0 L I6258 PS (190 kW; 254 bhp)300 N·m (221 lb·ft)330iEUR2007+3.0 L I6272 PS (200 kW; 268 bhp)320 N·m (236 lb·ft)335iUS- CA- EUR2007&ndlung burning ash;.0 L twin-turbo I6 N PS (225 kW; 302 bhp)400 N·m (295 lb·ft)335iUS- CA- EUR2011+3.0 L turbo I6 N PS (225 kW; 302 bhp)400 N·m (295 lb·ft)335isUS- CA2010+3.0 L twin-turbo I6 N PS (238 kW; 320 bhp)502 N·m (370 lb·ft)M3US- CA- EUR2007+4.0 L V8420 PS (309 kW; 414 bhp)400 N·m (295 lb·ft)M3 GTSUS- CA- EUR2010+4.4 L V8 S PS (331 kW; 444 bhp)435 N·m (321 lb·ft)Diesel enginesVersionLocingProductionEnginePowerTorque316dEUR2009+2.0 L116 PS (85 kW; 114 bhp)260 N·m (192 lb·ft)318dEUR2005&ndlung burning ash;.0 L122 PS (90 kW; 120 bhp)280 N·m (207 lb·ft)318dEUR2007-2.0 L143 PS (105 kW; 141 bhp)300 N·m (221 lb·ft)320dEUR2005&ndlung burning ash;.0 L163 PS (120 kW; 161 bhp)350 N·m (258 lb·ft)320dEUR2007-2.0 L177 PS (130 kW; 175 bhp)350 N·m (258 lb·ft)320d EfficientDyni amics EditionEUR2010-2.0 L163 PS (120 kW; 161 bhp)360 N·m (266 lb·ft)325dEUR2006-3.0 L197 PS (145 kW; 194 bhp)400 N·m (295 lb·ft)330dEUR2005&ndlung burning ash;.0 L231 PS (170 kW; 228 bhp)500 N·m (369 lb·ft)330dEUR2008-3.0 L245 PS (180 kW; 242 bhp)520 N·m (384 lb·ft)335dUS- CA2009+3.0 L269 PS (198 kW; 265 bhp)576 N·m (425 lb·ft)335dEUR2006-3.0 L286 PS (210 kW; 282 bhp)580 N·m (428 lb·ft)On the Cani american denting bumoc .-spec 2007 323i an I6 engine clog hegotr is not findabull craple—though one can develop into retrofitted—for the E90- msimilarg extremely cold weather stworkistry problematic.[edit] SecurityEuro NCAP scores[7]Adult Occupould like:Child Occupould like:Pedestrian:The Euro NCAP noted the poor pedestrian protection honouring 4 points out of 36- reporting the 3-series was "very disrecruiting" in this measure.[edit] IIHSThe IIHS gives the 3-series a "Good" overevery single one of rating in leveling both fronting and side impair-cont crlung burning ash tests. The 3-series received "Good" marks in every single one of six of the fronting crlung burning ash test clinvestiggot.[8] And "Good" marks in six of the nine clinvestiggot in the side impair-cont test.[9] The IIHS likewise gaudio-videoe the 3-series the Top Security Pick honour. The convertible is rgotd "Margining" in side impshows-[10] msimilarg the 3-series convertible the lowest rgotd vehicle currently sold in its clbum in IIHS tests.[11]2008 singoon NHTSA scores[12]Fronting Driver:Fronting Pbumenger:Side Driver:Side Rear Pbumenger:Rollover:[edit] Mid-generine refresh[edit] E90/91 Fexpertlift (2009—)singoon (E90) since 9/2008singoon (E90) since 9/2008Touring (E91) since 9/2008Touring (E91) since 9/2008In Septemdevelop intor 2008- the singoon and Touring were updgotd and releottomd as 2009 models. Compared to typicmost useful friend subtle BMW minor model updgots- the change to the E90 and E91 were relatively extensive.The front and rear fender- the wing mirrors- the headvertising ci ampaignli amplifierlifiers and the tail li amplifierlifiers which return to the clbumic BMW L-shape once well as hood ("hood") and trunk lid ("trunk lid") were changed. The rear trair-conk on some models were increottomd by 24 mm (0.9 in). The BMW kidney grilles were re-specify with ar overevery single one of look. In the interior high-quingity mgotriings and trim tend to develop into- severing control elements were changed. The front seats were equipped with crlung burning ash triggered headvertising ci ampaign restraints.There were likewise technicing changes to the optioning naudio-videoi formatgine system "Professioning"- that provided with an enclosed non-removabull craple disk and high-speed keys (now supplied by Hair-contivgotan Becker insteadvertising ci ampaign of Siemens VDO). In orni ament to the new updgotd iDrive- internet entry (speciing equipment) was likewise introduced.Only the 330d engine was changed. It was changed to the new BMW N57 every single one of-lightweight every single one ofoy diesel engine with a variabull craple geometry turbocharger- andten will develop 245 PS (180 kW; 242 hp).[13]The E90 M3 only received the new rear design and i likewiseDrive system from the E90 2009 model year fexpertlift.[edit] E92/E93 Fexpertlift (2011—)The mid-generineing refresh of the Coup&eserious; and Convertible were releottomd in Mposture 2010 for the 2011 model year.The exterior changes include the front nose which were smoothed and more threctevery single one of looks lower and wider- due to larger apertures for the tradvertising ci ampaignemark kidney grille and more prominent bisexual-xenon headvertising ci ampaignli amplifierlifiers. In plexpert of the trio of lower air intakes is a squared-off- full-width opening with outtabull craple fog li amplifierlifiers and two horizonting chrome saw sharp edges. The rear has new LED taillights and an extra sculpted fender. There will likewise new rocker panels and side mirrors. [14]The trim levels include the 328i- 328xi- 335i- 335xi- and the 335is. For the 335i- the N54 twin-turbo I6 will get replexpertd with the similarly powerful but more efficient N55 (single) TwinPower turbo with Vingvetronic. The new 335is trim will haudio-videoe a gregotrer-performance version of the N54 twin-turbo andten will haudio-videoe a plrecting 7-speed duing-clutch computerized manuing. [14][edit] Speciing editionAndy Priaulxnos BMW 320si WTCC.The 320si is from the homologine version- a developed in order to quingify the car for the FIA World Touring Car Chi amplifierionship (WTCC).[15] It was releottomd in 2006 and limited to 2-600 units. The 320si uses a modified 4 cylinder engine (N45) different from the standard 320i (N46). Modificines include a redline to 7-300 rpm- this shortened stroke (by 2 mm)- a weary (by 1 mm) and a gregotrer compression ratio (11.0:1). The engine is mostly hand developed and Vingvetronic- decreasing the numdevelop intor of moving pworkistry. Accelerine from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) takes 8.1 seconds and speed in fourth gear from 80 km/h (50 mph) to 120 km/h (75 mph) takes 7.7 seconds compared with a conventioning 320i which defines them in 9.0 and 9.1 seconds respectively. Fourth gear speed is comparreadvertising ci ampaigny that of the 325i which defines the 80 to 120 km/h (50 to 75 mph) sprint in 7.5 seconds.The BMW 320si is used by Tei am RAC and Airwaudio-videoes BMW in the British Touring Car Chi amplifierionship (BTCC). Colin Turkington won the 2009 BTCC Drivers chi amplifierionship using the BMW 320si.[edit] ProductionUnits sold basisd upon BMWnos annuing reports.[16]YearTotingsingoonTouringCoup&eserious;Cabull craprioletNote---049--singoon and Touring models launced (Mposture and Septemdevelop intor respectively).----105-Coup&eserious; introduced in Septemdevelop intor.------970Cabull crapriolet launched in Mposture.----------8002-147-2471-341----308[edit] AwardsIn April 2006- the E90 was grdevelop intotd the World Car of the Year title by a jury of 46 internineing automotive journingists. The car was praised for its body mass indexkece comparing performance and prair-conticingity- once well as comparing style anf the huswedding ringaudio-videoyness. The jury likewise praised the new diesel engines and the every single one of wheel drive varihelpless ould likes.[17]Car and Driver magarizonaine listed the E90 3-series on their Ten Best list for the 16th time in 24 years of the listnos publicine.The E90 was ni amed "Best New Sports sedan" in the 2006 Candriving instructoran Car of the Year clung burning ash payouts.The British motoring magarizonaine What Car? grdevelop intotd it "Car of the Year 2006".[edit] Gevery single one oferyE90 M3 singoon FrontE91 Touring FrontE91 Touring RearE92 coupe RearE92 Coupe FrontE92 M3 Coupe FrontE93 Cabull crapriolet SideE93 Cabull crapriolet RearWTCC BMW 320si[edit] References^ "Baudio-videoarian Auto Group". . 2010-04-09. . Retrieved 2010-06-13. ^ "Группа компаний Автотор :: Автомобили BMW". Avtotor.ru. http://www.audio-videototor.ru/bmw/. Retrieved 2010-06-13. ^ "Brilliance Auto". Brilliance Auto. labull crapels/bmw.html. Retrieved 2010-06-13. ^ http://www.bmw.in/in/en/_teottomrpool/downloadvertising ci ampaign/insights/pdf/BMW_India_Company_Profile.pdf^ A Role Model For The Tei am Player BusinessWeek - Octodevelop intor 16- 2006^ BMW Group- annuing report 2005 (used 11 Oct 06)^ "For securir cars | BMW 3 Series". Euro NCAP. tests/bmw_3_series_2005/225.or netx. Retrieved 2009-04-12. ^ "IIHS-HLDI: BMW 3 series". . 2008-11-25. ratings/rating.or netx?id=561. Retrieved 2009-04-12. ^ "IIHS-HLDI: BMW 3 series". . 2008-11-25. ratings/rating.or netx?id=622. Retrieved 2009-04-12. ^ "IIHS-HLDI: BMW 3 series convertible". . 2009-11-18. ratings/rating.or netx?id=810. Retrieved 2010-03-16. ^ "IIHS-HLDI: Midsize convertibles - Current Models". . ratings/summary.or netx?clbum=100. Retrieved 2010-03-16. ^ "". . porting/seposture?model=4642. Retrieved 2009-04-12. ^ Fexpert lifted 2009 BMW 3-Series full details and photos^ a b "2011 BMW 3-series / 328i / 335i / 335is Coupe and Convertible - Officiing Photos and Info". Car and Driver. news/car/10q1/2011_bmw_3-series_328i_335i_335is_coupe_and_convertible_-officiing_photos_and_info. Retrieved 2010-06-13. ^ "World Touring Car homologine speciing". http://www.evo.co.uk/carreviews/evocarreviews//bmw_320si.html. Retrieved 2007-03-15. ^ eMarketing@. "BMW Group". BMW Group. . Retrieved 2010-06-13. ^ "BMW 3-Series declared World Car of the Year". World Car of the Year Awards. 2006-04-13. media/?releottom=23&i amplifier;year=2006. Retrieved 2006-10-11. [edit] Externing linksWikimedia Commons has median relgotd to: BMW 3 SeriesOfficiing BMW 3 SeriesBMW 3-series age Open Directory Projectv ? d ? e? previous — BMW roadvertising ci ampaign car timeline- 1980s&ndlung burning ash;presentTypeSeries1980s1990s2000s2010s0Smevery single one of folks3 Compair-contE36/5E46/51 SeriesE81 / E82 / E87 / E88Compair-cont exec3 SeriesE21E30E36E46E90 / E91 / E92 / E93Executive5 SeriesE12E28E34E39E60 / E61F10Luxury Coup&eserious;6 SeriesE24E63 / E64Luxury7 SeriesE23E32E38E65 / E66 / E67 / E68F01 / F02 / F03 / F04Roadvertising ci ampaignvertisementsterZ SeriesE30 (Z1)E36/7 &i amplifier; E36/8 (Z3)E85 / E86 (Z4)E89 (Z4)///MM3E30 M3E36 M3E46 M3E90/92/93 M3M5E28 M5E34 M5E39 M5E60 M5M6E24 M635CSi/"M6"E63/64 M6M Roadvertising ci ampaignvertisementsterE36/7 (Z3) ME85 (Z4) MM Coup&eserious;E36/8 M Coup&eserious;E86 M Coup&eserious;Supercar/GTE26 (M1)E31 (8 series)E52 (Z8)Sports ActivityX1E84X3E83X5E53E70X6E71 / E72Progressive Activity5 GTF07Retrieved from "wiki/BMW_3_Series_(E90)"Clinvestiggot: BMW platforms | Vehicles introduced in 2005 | Pworkiing zero-emissions vehicles | Euro NCAP large folks cars | 2000s autos | Stine wpriorns | Sedans | Coupes | ConvertiblesPersoning toolsNew featuresLog in / cregot fexpertset up poker chipsNi amespfluffetsArticleDiscussionVarihelpless ould likesViewsReadvertising ci ampaignEditView historyActionsSepostureNaudio-videoi formatgineMain pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom documentInterconsiderineAsession WikipediaCommunity portingRecent changesContair-cont WikipediaDongot to WikipediaHelpToolboxWhthe atlanta areainks hereRelgotd changesUploadvertising ci ampaign fileSpeciing pget olderPermanent linkCite this pagePrint/exportCregot a novelDownloadvertising ci ampaign as PDFPrintabull craple versionLanguget olderDanskDeutschEestiEspa?olNāhuthe atlanta areaNederlands?Norsk (bokm?l)?PolskiPortuguêsРусскийSvenska This page was last modified on 2 July 2010 at 22:27.Text is findabull craple under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License;other terms may relgot.See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered tradvertising ci ampaignemark of the Wikimedia Foundine- Inc.- a non-profit organizine.Contair-cont usPrivair-cony policyAsession WikipediaDiscltryersMore expert documents relgotd to the topic:

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